On the other hand, when the Safavids not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman Empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations". It is certainly said, that if it had not been for the artillery, which terrified in the manner related the Persian horses which had never before heard such a din, all his forces would have been routed and put to edge of the sword. Sheikh Safi and his immediate successors were renowned as holy ascetics Sufis. Ismail was wounded and almost captured in battle. In a reply the Ottoman Sultan answered in Persian to indicate his contempt. Before his accession in , Iran, since its conquest by the Arabs eight-and-a-half centuries before, had not existed as a unified country under native Iranian rule, but had been controlled by a series of Arab caliphs , Turkic sultans , and Mongol khans. Despite his defeat at the Battle of Chaldiran, Ismail quickly recovered most of his kingdom, from east of the Lake Van to the Persian Gulf. Neshat Esfahani Abbas Foroughi Bastami —
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